This is a highly incomplete sketch of the methodology and history of ontology in the analytic tradition from Frege to Lewis. It appeared as Chapter 16 of Theories and Applications of Ontology Vol. 1 J. Seibt and R. Poli (eds.) New York: Springer. 349-394, 2010. You can read a penultimate version here: Ontology and Methodology in Analytic Philosophy
Here’s a PDF: 17094-52642-1-PB
This paper challenges arguments that systematic patterns of intelligent behavior license the claim that representations must play a role in the cognitive system analogous to that played by syntactical structures in a computer program. In place of traditional computational models, I argue that research inspired by Dynamical Systems theory can support an alternative view of representations. My suggestion is that we treat linguistic and representational structures as providing complex multi-dimensional targets for the development of individual brains. This approach acknowledges the indispensability of the intentional or representational idiom in psychological explanation without locating representations in the brains of intelligent agents.
Read more here: Explanation, Representation and the Dynamical Hypothesis